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Thursday, 3 April 2014

Essay on the Harassment and humiliation of women in India

Humiliation, harassment, torture and exploitation of women are as old as is the history of family life. In India, women are way ahead of women elsewhere in the matter of social legislation but the implementation of laws granting rights to women has been so slow, lopsided and haphazard that socially, economically and politically women lag far behind men.
They are discriminated against at work and are denied their due in every field. At home, they are often even worse off, reduced to being slavish drudges and maltreated in a hundred different ways. Constantly derided, frequently bullied, sometimes assaulted and occasionally burnt to death, they remain victims in every role.
Surprisingly, female victims of crime and violence have not been given much attention in books on social problems or in literature on criminal violence. The attitude of indifference and negligence is primarily the result of general acceptance of man's superiority over woman because of which violent acts against women have not been viewed as violent acts.
It is also the result of denial of violence by women themselves due to their religious values and social attitudes. It is only recently that the issue of crime against women has been transformed from a private issue into a public problem.

Essay on A Friend in Need Is a Friend in Deed (Short Essay)

We hear the above phrase a lot but fail to pay much attention to it as we believe that all our friends are friends in deed. Mostly in troubled times we look back space that is sans them. The choices that we take, the amount of time we spend all decide the amount of closeness we share with a friend.
A true friend no matter what doesn't stop from helping us out of anything. Also we should not stop from helping friends who are very close to us. Friends we make now and then don't seem memorable but when on a day we end up with one of them as our closest friend, then the true value of friendship dawns on us.
A friend who doesn't hesitate to help us out of any turmoil even while risking his own life is one who is a truly best friend of ours. Friends aren't calculated risks but uncalculated gains that we get in life. Friends also can be past enemies. It isn't how much trust we put in a person but how much we haven't hesitated from being befriending him and helping him in troubled waters that decides a good friendship.
Sometimes even a trustworthy person can backstab us. Our actions to decide whether the person whom we consider as a friend truly trusts or for that matter likes us. So though a major role is played by us in selecting our core group, the saying always holds true-a friend in need is a friend indeed.

Essay on E-governance Stands for Efficiency and Promptness

Information Technology has made a decisive impact on every branch of human life with both the Central and State Governments making every effort to introduce e-governance, thus ensuring efficiency, promptness, transparency and better citizen-friendly interface.
Not all the States are making headway at the same pace, but it cannot be gainsaid that every Department at the Centre and every state is making frantic efforts to make the life of the citizen less cumbersome by best utilizing the tools of information technology. Appreciable progress has been made in land registration, motor vehicles departments, and railways "and utility bills payment centres.
The Union Department of Information Technology is creating a national portal encompassing information on different services extended by the Central and State Governments. This is part of the IT initiative being undertaken by the Government with a view to providing convenience, efficiency, transparency and reliability in the services.
At the ninth National E-governance Conference held in February 2006, the Union IT Secretary, Mr. Brijesh Kumar outlined the plan for setting up web-enabled common service centres at one lakh locations in rural areas. The project envisages an expenditure of Rs. 6,000 crores and veneration of direct employment to four lakh people.
A national level services-agency is proposed to be entrusted with the task of implementing me project under the supervision of the Department of IT and the State Governments. The project could be evolved as a platform to meet challenges of rural development. Apart from providing government unites, the common service centres could cater to purposes like launching -JDS awareness poster campaign in villages.
Among the department or undertakings of the Central Government, the Railways have made a considerable headway in e-governance and have several new proposals on the anvil. They are in touch with the banks for utilizing counters to issue tickets. The Railways are planning to install 5,000 ATMs and an equal number of vending machines at various stations. They are negotiating with the banks for a tie-up to utilize the Railway's ticket counters, numbering over one lakh, across the country.
Under the proposed scheme, the ATM would be connected with ticket counters, called 'electronic dispensing counters', from where tickets could be issued. The Railways are also introducing e-ticketing. One could travel by presenting one's identity card or ration card. Presently only 19,000 tickets are being reserved through e-ticketing.
Among the States, the e-pension project of Himachal Pradesh has won kudos for its innovative operations.
Assam Government is proud of its 'Dharitree', one of the first web- technology-based land records computerisation projects of the country. Haryana is also known for its Dynamic Integration of Property Registration and Land Records Adminitration (HALRIS).
Andhra Pradesh has launched a project on site suitability for water harvesting structures in reserve forests. The Khammam District in the State has introduced an e-immunisation project
Lokvani Project of Sitapur Collectorate in Uttar Pradesh is known for its outstanding performance in service delivery. The Jharkhand Government has introduced the comupterisation and networking of the transport department called. "Vahan". Rajasthan has launched "Aarakashi", the online FIR system.
In Kerala two grama panchayats have been fully computerized. The Public Works Department is ready to use satellite imagery for road mapping. The Kerala Government is all set to implement a Treasury information Management (TRIM) system that is aimed at making the government treasuries more citizen-friendly. More than 3.25 lakh senior citizens drawing their pensions from State Treasuries and 4.26 lakh persons having treasury savings bank and fixed deposit accounts are among those expected to benefit from the system that is being developed by the National Informatics Centre (NIC). The NIC has already developed a voice guided touch screen information kiosk for 189 districts and sub- treasuries in the State. The kiosk will enable citizens to access their pension and savings account through a password protected system.
Rural multipurpose ICT centres of AISECT, Bhopal have earned reputation in exemplary leadership and ICT achievement.
Web-enabled Fully Automatic Services of Transport (FAST) of the Motor Vehicles Department have been introduced for the Regional Transport Offices in some States. The inordinate delays in getting the services will be avoided with the commencement of FAST.
E-governance, though in elementary form, has been a big boon to many of our North-Eastern States and Sikkim. The Government of India has been implementing an ambitious Rs. 242 crore Community Information Centres (CIC) project for this region. The project envisages setting up of computer rooms at the block headquarters level. Computer rooms, with VSAT connectivity, are coming up in the 487 blocks of the North-Eastern region.
The CICs are being manned by local youth, trained by professionals of the National Informatics Centre, which is providing the required software and hardware to the centres. The QCs are designed to be run as small entrepreneurial ventures of that particular block. A cardinal feature of this project is that the content of the programme is made available in local language.
Typically, a CIC will offer e-mail, web browsing online access to government gazettes, government service rules, and latest farming methods, telemedicine, and general healthcare information, status of rail, air and bus reservations. Ultimately, these centres will function as utility centres where people can just walk in to pay the telephone, water and electricity bills, and obtain birth and death certificates.
The MCA 21 project, envisaging electronic filing of documents and paperless administration, pertains to the Registrar of Companies offices. It is already in operation in a few cities in Tamil Nadu and will soon cover die entire country. There is a good public-private partnership between the Ministry of Company Affairs and the Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) . Hereby the latter will man the front offices of all Registrar of Companies RoC) offices across the country to facilitate easy stabilization of e-filing of documents under company law. Inspection of any document relating to a company allowed under company law can now be done online from anywhere on payment of the prescribed free.
As Homble President Dr. A.R J. Abdul Kalam pointed out, a major actor for the lack of transparency; accountability and effectiveness, in company law administration in India is corruption in Roc offices and in the central bureaucracy in charge of the company law.
Delivering the inaugural address at a conference on "Effects of Good Governance and Human Rights", organized by the National Human Fights, Commission in New Delhi on May 9,2006, the Homble President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam described e-governance as a strong tool for ensuring corruption-free, administration. The President cited the Delhi Metro and online railway reservation system as examples of good governance. All courts should follow the example of the Supreme Court md High Courts and make their judgments available online. "This should re facilitated by the Law Ministry and the higher judiciary," said Dr. Kalam.
In a highly interdependent world, it should be possible to achieve inter-operability of e-governance projects if the citizens are to feel the benefit of information technology in day-to-day life. In other words, every IT project should have a clear government to government interface before a meaningful government to citizen solution can be implemented. The National Informatics Centre (NIC) has already started work in this direction.
Slowly, but steadily, e-governance is percolating down to the bottom, enabling citizens to have a better and friendly rapport with the government, thereby ensuring a hassle-free life.

Essay on the changing face of cities in India

"After more than 56 years of independence, with launching and implementing many five years plans, the cities of modern India, are on the verge of collapse. The cities epitomes an area wherein the habitants, whether rich or poor, are bound to face the scourges of exploding population, air pollution contaminated water sources, bumps solid wastes, ill tolerable noise pollution, inadequate transport system, creaked road unable to cope with the proliferation of private and public vehicles, shortage of water, breakdown of electricity, choked sanitary, drainage and sewage system, increasing crime against fair sex and unsafe senior citizens, with criminally indifferent attitude of government officials to every kind of problems." One more peculiar thing about cities, is the scant regard for keeping the cities clean and tidy. The indifferent attitude and deliberate neglect by the civic authorities have caused the cities a bump of solid and other wastes choking and overflowing sewage and drains, resulted into mud, water storage and dirt everywhere, giving rise to epidemics like malaria, typhoid, dengue every alternate year.
Various reasons and factors are responsible for the sordid state of cities. Unplanned growth of colonies, ill management of resources, lack of prudency in planning, sidelining the issues like pollution, education, slums, cleanliness, are to a great extent responsible to make the cities a nightmare.
We can find temple, mosque or shrine at every nook and corner, even in the middle of a road while the basic amenities like water tab or electric pillar are not made available. Resources are not properly managed, corruption in institutions responsible for providing basic amenities are of the highest order. Public funds are being missutilised for the aggrandizement of personal or political benefits. Any positive developmental action for replacing or removing the slum or removing the illegal encroachments has immediately become a political issue and vehemently opposed and sabotaged by the politicians.
There are approximately 350 cities, having population more than one lack, proper sanitary, drainage health care seems to be the privileges of a handful of people. Living in the posh colonies.
New Delhi, the Capital of India, a metropolitan is passing through the worst crisis of inadequate mass transportation and pollution caused by the vehicular traffic. It is noteworthy that the Supreme Court has to issue very strict directives to keep the city free from vehicular pollution as the earlier advice of the apex court, were not acted upon by the Delhi Govt. More than forty lacks vehicles run daily on the road of Delhi, more than the total number of vehicles in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, all together. Delhi is growing day by day with more people streaming in search of their livelihood. The city is on the verge of bursting with population explosion and authorities are least concern to make provisions for the eventuality. The plight of Mumbai is no better than other metropolitan cities.
The Suburban rail network of Mumbai, which carries over six million commuters daily, is not perfect and whenever it failed a violent reaction as taken place in 1994, is always feared. The unplanned and unchecked growth of distant suburbs, depends mainly on the suburban railway networked for their daily travelling, has caused an intolerable pressure on the railways. The existing Railways machinery is unable to maintain the system properly and efficiently. The haphazard growth of suburbs with or without the basic amenities provided by the builders, has rendered the peace and tranquility of the city to ransom. A daily commuter comments, "The policy makers should take a ride during the morning or evening hours to find the problems and hardships faced by us everyday”.
India's commercialized Mumbai, is an open Mafia territory with more than two murders on an average daily. Open gang wars, extortion, kidnapping, sexual blackmail are the daily locals news, that are becoming too common to raise any protest. Mumbai police had a name of repute in yester years, but now many philanthropists, planners, bureaucrats demanded a need of total revamp of the police administration to make it free from Mafia links.
Frequent power breakdown, shortage of drinking water, overcrowded transportation are some of the problems faced by most of the cities now-a-days. The in habitants of metro Chennai has accepted their fate accompli, to live with chronic water shortage, spending not less than Rs. 500/- per month for water requirement. Over in Kerala, having 42 small rivers and lakes even most of the cities are facing irregular water supply. Same is the problem in many newly built colonies of Mumbai.
Yet another problem in most of the cities, particularly the metros is the proliferation of slum localities. Recently, the DDA authorities refused to take any action on the complaints of residents of West Delhi posh colony against the slum dwellers using a pavement for defecation. In his report the Comptroller and Auditor General of India disclosed in 1994-95, that over 40000 new jhuggies proliferate in the capital every year. The court in Nov. 1994 had advised the Delhi Government to check slum growth and to take immediate step to improve the conditions of the urban poor. It is a fact that millions people from countryside rural areas migrate to Metros and other nearby cities in order to earn their livelihood. There is no employment opportunities available in rural areas.
Cities provide job opportunities for all, the professionals, the traders, the skilled or unskilled labors and anyone who is ready to work into his body and soul. Slums are the result of migration at no cost. In spite of all the suffering and hardships, these poor jobless people would prefer to slog in the city fringes, sleep under flyovers, or on pavements, for want of bread to starving stomach their family. The slum dwellers is a harsh reality, no government has taken any resultant step to solve the problem in a planned and positive manner. The government is duty bound to provide basic amenities to these poor? Are these people not contributing or serving the needs of rich or economically affluent society of the cities in the form of Press-wala, rickshaw puller, daily wage labor, or the others?
The complex socio-economic growth of cities, has given rise to small or big crimes like rape, dacoit, theft, kidnapping even the murder. The lack of impersonal relations, indifferent attitude of the co-passengers, neglect and corrupt police officials, had made cities the dens of crime. A lone youth with open knife in a crowded bus may after pick pocketing an innocent passenger, could alight from a bus nonchalantly and none dare to stop him. Crime thrives because of the apathy of the citizens and the collusion and irresponsibility on the part of law enforcing machinery.
Are the cities on the verge of collapse? Are we heading towards a dooms day? Can the peculiar problems of cities be tackled? Can the cities be places for peaceful and pollution free living? Though lot of clamoring have been there to improve the lives in the Metros and cities, yet a little can be done in the immediate future to halt the process of urbane sat ion. A national urban policy needs to be refined keeping in view the entire spectrum of urban problems and peculiarities to tackle the problems. To check the exodus from rural areas to urban areas, a lot is required to be done to make available the job opportunities in rural area itself. Developing satellite towns, with all necessary infrastructure and proper transportation may prove to be a good measure to check the over crowdedness in the cities. Nothing can be done without the cooperation of the general mass to ameliorate the conditions of the cities. Proper prudent planning, sincere strategies, with involvement of society, check on corruption can make our cities worth living. If all concerned join hand sincerely with determination our cities \nay be turned from the present day' Hell' to the' Heaven' of future.

Essay on the Power of Press

The power of press in any country depends on the number of newspaper readers; and this in turn depends on the spread of education. Where readers are few, newspapers are few and will appeal directly to only a small minority of population. In a country like England or America where even the poorest working man can read, the reading public is practically the whole nation. Hence the large number of newspapers, and their great influence on public opinion.
Now the great majority of newspaper readers is uncritical. Only a few think for themselves and form their own opinions. Most accept what they read without any question and take their opinions readymade for their favorite papers. Newspapers, therefore, mold public opinion.
In democratic countries, whereby the system of election and representation the people control the government, public opinion is the chief power. No democratic government can long neglect or oppose a strong public opinion on any question. Sooner or later the government will have to yield to public opinion or be driven out of office. It is, therefore, obvious that if press controls the government, the press is ultimately controlled by the public. Such is the political power of the press.
This great power may be used for good or evil. If the great newspapers are serious, disinterested and clean, and give their readers a wise, courageous and great national question, the power of press will be blessing. But if the papers are frivolous, prejudiced and corrupt and pander to the worst tastes of the people by filing their pages with scandal and sensationalism, their influence must be bad and even disastrous.
The commercializing of the modern press is an evil. A newspaper is a business concern and is meant to sell. To get a large sale, it must give its readers what they want. And the more extreme and sensational and exciting it is, the better it will sell. It, therefore, cannot afford to be lofty, serious and moderate: A country that has an independent and clean press is blessed indeed.

Essay on the Monsoon Season

"I hear thunder, I hear thunder, Oh! Don't you? Pitter patter raindrops,
Pitter patter raindrops,
I'm wet through".
This rhyme that we studied as four years old sums up the feeling the monsoon season brings for a kid. It still holds meaning for most of us. It brings back memories of playing in the rain water, making paper boats, wearing raincoats and gumboots and enjoying the rains thoroughly.
As we grow up and enter our teens we are no more fascinated by paper boats but we still enjoy having hot tea and 'bhajiyas' during rain. Then, when we become adults we continue enjoying the monsoon, sitting at home and seeing the rain through our windows.
Thus, monsoon weaves its magic on all people across different age groups, caste, creed, religion and sex. It brings relief from the scorching summer heat.
In India we worship nature. Varuna is the Aryan rain god whom we have adopted in Hinduism. In the Rigvedic times, Indra was also associated with the weather. He performed the twin functions of war god as well as weather god. He was associated with storm that brought the rain clouds and thunder, and his hand bore the thunderbolt.
It is believed that Varuna is the bestowed of rains and regulates the seasons: He is the god of waters, clouds, oceans and rivers. There are hymns dedicated to Him in the Rigveda. It is also believed that all the water in the heaven, in the air and on the earth flows at his command. He is prayed to if there is scarcity of rain. Priests perform the "Varuna Japa", which means chanting a "japa in the name of God Varuna by standing in water, if there is lack of rain.
Indian music is also associated with rains. It is believed that singing the 'Raag Malhar' brings the rains. We also associate the arrival and singing of cuckoo and the dancing of the peacock with the onset of monsoon. Even films pay ode to the monsoon season. There are many songs on monsoon as well as picturised in the rains in different films.
The terms 'monsoon' is derived from the Arabic word mausim which means a time or a season. The dictionary describes 'monsoon' as "a periodical wind of the Indian Ocean, South West from April to October and North East the rest of the year, these winds are accompanied by rains". South West monsoon winds bring rains to Kerala, Goa, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The rest of India receives rains from North East monsoon winds. The monsoon season in India is generally from June to October.
Monsoon season is also a season when creativity blooms. Poets give expressions to their feelings by writing poems on the rains. They also describe the magical effect it has on the earth. One Marathi poet writes, "The earth looks as fresh as a young lady who has just taken her bath".
Poets also describe accompanied by thunder and lightning and the way it affects the lives of people. The great Indian dramatist Kalidasa wrote Meghdoot symbolically using clouds as messenger. Shakespeare too wrote The Tempest keeping thunderbolt and its implications in mind. Thus, monsoon season is a favourite topic of the poets.
India is an agricultural land. With almost seventy percent of the population living in rural areas, agriculture is the main occupation in India. Also, barring a few developed States like Punjab and Haryana, majority of the farmers depend on the monsoon, for supply of water to their fields as irrigation facilities are not properly developed throughout India.
For farmers timely arrival and departure of monsoon means prosperity. They believe in the regenerative power of rain and rain god and therefore pray for the blessings. Monsoon, therefore, has great importance to farmers, especially in our country.
Rains bring respite not only to farmers but also to the public in general Monsoon provides relief from the summer heat to all from children to old people and also to the birds and animals. Everyone looks forward to the rains after the heat spell of summer. Rains turn parched lands into greenery which is soothing to the eyes.
Monsoon is an important season for many reasons. Firstly, rain water is necessary for agricultural produce because irrigation facility is not fully developed especially in village areas. Secondly, monsoon feeds water to lakes and rivers.
This water is stored through dams and later used for various purposes like supplying water for drinking and other household uses, generation of hydro electricity, water supply to industrial houses for their use, etc. Thirdly, monsoon gives relief to all living beings from the intense heat of the summer. Fourthly, it cools the earth's surface and thereby reduces global warning to some extent. Lastly, monsoon rains bring about greenery by helping growth of trees and fresh leaves.
"Even if nectar is consumed in excess, it is poisonous". An overdose of anything is definitely harmful. An excess of rains is also destructive. Many problems arise due to heavy rains, just like the lack of monsoon rains causes problems. The problems arising due to excess of rains are: firstly, excess rains cause flooding of the fields, thereby destroying crops.
For e.g., once heavy rains destroyed onion crops in Maharashtra, the recent torrential rains in Mumbai and several parts of Maharashtra brought about loss of crop and cattle of the farmers. Secondly, floods also destroy property of the people.
In 2004 heavy rains rendered many people homeless in Bihar. Similarly many lost their home and property in Gujarat and Maharashtra recently due to floods. Thirdly, heavy rains cause landslides killing people and animals. Many people died in Mumbai due to landslides caused by rains on 26th July this year. Fourthly, loss of life both humans and animals, is caused by drowning in floods. Fifthly, also there is a possibility of outbreak of rain related diseases or epidemics such as gastroenteritis, malaria, jaundice and other water borne diseases. Sixthly, flooding also causes destruction of infrastructures like roads bridges, railway lines, airport runways, etc. Seventhly, heavy rains also disrupt vital services, such as transport and communication. Eighthly flooding also causes sewage problems. Ninthly, essential items such as
milk, vegetable supplies etc., are also affected.
Thus, as a coin has both upside and flipside, monsoon season also has both advantages and problems. Lastly, what havoc unprecedented rains can cause is borne testimony by the rains that lashed Mumbai on 26th July, 2005 when there was a record 944 mm rain in a single day.
However, in spite of all its problems, monsoon is the favourite season for all. Monsoon is my favourite season as well. Its magic engulfs and encompasses one and all. Crisis such as floods brings out the best in each one of us. It brings about a spirit of co-operation.
All barriers such as caste, colour, creed, religion etc., are forgotten and help is extended to the needy. Like the recent floods in Mumbai showed the helping tendency of humans. There were people distributing food packets, biscuits, water etc., giving instructions and helping people find their way through flooded streets, cautioning people about open manholes, offering free lift to people in their vehicles, etc. Ibis shows the humanity taught by Indian culture.
The following poetry sums up my feeling about the arrival of monsoon:
"The whispering drops
Started to drizzle
I could hear
From far a whistle
The monsoon wind
Is on its way
Drops that fell
Over the sand
Made it more
Brown and darker
Over the river
Each made crowns
A view that flashes
Only for seconds
The darkest clouds
Were thundering loud
A wind will soon
Bring us the monsoon".

Essay on the Unforgettable 26/11 in India

The more than ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai which began on 26 November 2008 are referred to as 26/11 on the lines of 9/11 that reminds of the attack on the Twin Towers in US. The attacks lasted until 29 November, killing at least 173 people and wounding at least 308. Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai including at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi Trident, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital, the Orthodox Jewish-owned Nariman House, and the Metro Cinema.
There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle. India's National Security Guards (NSG carried out Operation Black Tornado, which ended all fighting in the attacks on 29 November with the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj hotel.
Ajmal Kasab was the only attacker who was captured alive. He later disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, a . Pakistan-based militant organization. In January 2009, Pakistan's Information Minister Sherry Rehman officially accepted Ajmal Amir's nationality as Pakistani.
In February 2009, Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik, confirmed that parts of the attack were planned in Pakistan and said that six people, including the alleged mastermind, were being held in connection with the attacks.
Investigations revealed that the attackers traveled by sea from Karachi, Pakistan across the Arabian Sea, hijacked the Indian fishing trawler 'Kuber', killing the crew of four, and then forced the captain to sail to Mumbai. After killing the captain, the terrorists entered Mumbai on a rubber dinghy. The first events were detailed around 20:00 hrs Indian Standard Time (1ST) on 26 November, when 10 Urdu- speaking men in inflatable speedboats came ashore at two locations in Colaba. They reportedly they split up and headed two different ways.
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) was attacked by two gunmen, one of whom, Ajmal Kasab, was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire, using AK-47 rifles. In the fifteen minute assault, the attackers killed 58 people and injured 104 others. The two gunmen then fled the scene and fired at pedestrians and police officers in the streets, killing eight police officers.
The terrorists then headed towards Cama hospital and attempted to enter the patient ward, but the hospital staff locked all of the patient wards. When local police arrived, Kasab and Khan threw grenades and shot a police officer dead before fleeing. A team of the Mumbai Anti- Terrorist Squad led by Police chief Hemant Karkare searched the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and then headed out in pursuit of Kasab and Khan, who opened fire on the pursuing vehicle.
Karkare and four of his officers were killed, and the only survivor was wounded. However, the terrorists ran into a police roadblock, which had been set up after the wounded police officer radioed for help, leading to a gun battle in which Khan was killed, and Kasab was wounded and arrested.
The Leopold Cafe, a popular restaurant and bar on Colaba Causeway in South Mumbai, was one of the first sites to be attacked, in which at least 10 people were killed. Also, there were two explosions in taxis caused by timer bombs one at Vile Parle, killing the driver and a passenger and the other at Wadi Bunder, killing three people and injuring about 15 others.
Two hotels, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and the Oberoi Trident, were amongst the four locations targeted. Six explosions were reported at the Taj hotel and one at the Oberoi Trident. At the Taj Mahal, firefighters rescued 200 hostages from windows using ladders during the first night. During the attacks, both hotels were surrounded by Rapid Action Force personnel, Marine Commandos (MARCOS) and National Security Guards (NSG) commandos.
Feeds to the hotels were blocked after reports emerged that attackers were receiving television broadcasts. Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan of the NSG lost his life during the evacuation of Commando Sunil Yadav who was hit in the leg by a bullet during the rescue operations at Taj.
At Nariman House, a Chabad Lubavitch Jewish center in Colaba known as the Mumbai Chabad House, several residents were held hostage by two attackers. Police evacuated adjacent buildings and exchanged fire with terrorists, wounding one. NSG commandos stormed the house by fast-roping from helicopters onto the roof, covered by snipers positioned in nearby buildings.
After a long battle, one NSG commando and both terrorists were killed. Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife were murdered with other hostages inside the house by the attackers. According to doctors, the victims had been tied up and tortured before being killed.
The Jewish outreach center at Nariman House and the Oberoi Trident hotel were secured by the army by the morning of 27 November. At the Taj Mahal Palace hotel, the final operation was completed by the NSG commandos at 08:00 on 29 November, killing three attackers and resulting in the conclusion of the attacks.
The security forces rescued 250 people from the Oberoi, 300 from the Taj and 60 people (members of 12 different families) from Nariman House. In addition, police were able to seize a boat filled with arms and explosives anchored at Mazgaon dock off Mumbai harbour.
It seemed as if the attackers had planned the attack several months ahead of time and knew some areas well enough for the attackers to vanish, and reappear after security forces had left. Type 86 Grenades made by China's state-owned Norinco were used in the attacks. Blood tests on the attackers revealed that they had taken cocaine and LSD during the attacks, to sustain their energy and stay awake for 50 hours. Syringes were found on the scenes of the attacks.
After the attacks, the Indian government supplied evidence to Pakistan and other governments, in the form of interrogations, weapons, and call records of conversations during the attacks. International reaction for the attacks was widespread, with many countries and international organizations condemning the attacks and expressing their condolences to the civilian victims.
The New York Times, in July 2009, described the event as "what may be the most well-documented terrorist attack anywhere." The Mumbai attacks has also demonstrated how terrorism can strike at will whenever and wherever it wants.